10 Best Programming Languages to Learn in 2021

The first programming language? It came about thanks to an English mathematician. In fact, Augusta Ada Byron, known as Ada Lovelace, defined the first programming language. It was an ‘assemblage’ language whose analytical machine, however, was never completed. The ‘Plankalk?l’ followed Ada Lovelace’s project. In 1942, Konrad Zuse, a German computer scientist and engineer, initiated this programming language developed for engineering applications. It was the first high-level programming language to be designed for a computer. The project saw its first versions from 1946 onwards.

It is interesting to note that in general – due to the Second World War – it is possible that digital electronic computers were implemented in the military without this becoming public knowledge. Precisely because of the war and the importance that computers could have in military strategy.

But what have been the most important programming languages in history? And which ones are expected to be most used in 2021?

10 Programming Languages You Can Learn in 2021

Below, we will take a look at the main programming languages throughout history, decade by decade. But what are the main programming languages for 2021? And how have they evolved?

10. Go: Go is a statically typed, compiled programming language designed at Google[ by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson.[12] Go is syntactically similar to C, but with memory safety, garbage collection, structural typing, and CSP-style concurrency. The language is often referred to as Golang because of its domain name, golang.org, but the proper name is Go. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Go_(programming_language)

9. Swift: Swift is a powerful and intuitive programming language for macOS, iOS, watchOS, tvOS and beyond. Writing Swift code is interactive and fun, the syntax is concise yet expressive, and Swift includes modern features developers love. Swift code is safe by design, yet also produces software that runs lightning-fast. Source: https://developer.apple.com/swift/

8. R: R is a programming language and free software environment for statistical computing and graphics supported by the R Foundation for Statistical Computing. The R language is widely used among statisticians and data miners for developing statistical software and data analysis.  Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R_(programming_language)

7. Ruby: A dynamic, open source programming language with a focus on simplicity and productivity. It has an elegant syntax that is natural to read and easy to write. https://www.ruby-lang.org/en/

6. C#: C# is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm programming language encompassing static typing, strong typing, lexically scoped, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented, and component-oriented programming disciplines. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C_Sharp_(programming_language)

5. C++: C++ is a general-purpose programming language created by Bjarne Stroustrup as an extension of the C programming language, or “C with Classes”. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C%2B%2B

4. Javascript: JavaScript, often abbreviated as JS, is a programming language that conforms to the ECMAScript specification. JavaScript is high-level, often just-in-time compiled, and multi-paradigm. It has curly-bracket syntax, dynamic typing, prototype-based object-orientation, and first-class functions. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JavaScript

3. PHP: PHP is a popular general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited to web development. Fast, flexible and pragmatic, PHP powers everything from your blog to the most popular websites in the world. Source: https://www.php.net/

2. Java: Java is a set of computer software and specifications developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems, which was later acquired by the Oracle Corporation, that provides a system for developing application software and deploying it in a cross-platform computing environment. Source: Wikipedia

1 Python: Python is an interpreted, object-oriented, high-level programming language with dynamic semantics. Its high-level built in data structures, combined with dynamic typing and dynamic binding, make it very attractive for Rapid Application Development, as well as for use as a scripting or glue language to connect existing components together. Python’s simple, easy to learn syntax emphasizes readability and therefore reduces the cost of program maintenance. Python supports modules and packages, which encourages program modularity and code reuse. The Python interpreter and the extensive standard library are available in source or binary form without charge for all major platforms, and can be freely distributed. Source: https://www.python.org/

Before the 1950s

YearNameChief developer, companyPredecessor(s)
1804Jacquard machineJoseph Marie Jacquardnone (unique language)
1943–45Plankalkül (concept)Konrad Zusenone (unique language)
1943–46ENIAC coding systemJohn von Neumann, John Mauchly, J. Presper Eckert, Herman Goldstine after Alan Turing. The first programmers of ENIAC were Kay McNulty, Betty Jennings, Betty Snyder, Marlyn Meltzer, Fran Bilas, and Ruth Lichterman.none (unique language)
1946ENIAC Short CodeRichard Clippinger, John von Neumann after Alan TuringENIAC coding system
1946Von Neumann and Goldstine graphing system (Notation)John von Neumann and Herman GoldstineENIAC coding system
1947ARC AssemblyKathleen Booth[1][2]ENIAC coding system
1948CPC Coding schemeHoward H. AikenAnalytical Engine order code
1948Curry notation systemHaskell CurryENIAC coding system
1948Plankalkül (concept published)Konrad Zusenone (unique language)
1949EDSAC Initial OrdersDavid WheelerENIAC coding system
1949Short CodeJohn Mauchly and William F. SchmittENIAC Short Code

Programming languages in the 1950s

YearNameChief developer, companyPredecessor(s)
1950Short CodeWilliam F. Schmidt, Albert B. Tonik,[3] J. R. LoganBrief Code
1950Birkbeck AssemblerKathleen BoothARC
1951SuperplanHeinz RutishauserPlankalkül
1951ALGAEEdward A. Voorhees and Karl Balkenone (unique language)
1951Intermediate Programming LanguageArthur BurksShort Code
1951Regional Assembly LanguageMaurice WilkesEDSAC
1951Boehm unnamed coding systemCorrado BöhmCPC Coding scheme
1951KlammerausdrückeKonrad ZusePlankalkül
1951OMNIBAC Symbolic AssemblerCharles KatzShort Code
1951Stanislaus (Notation)Fritz Bauernone (unique language)
1951Whirlwind assemblerCharles Adams and Jack Gilmore at MIT Project WhirlwindEDSAC
1951Rochester assemblerNat RochesterEDSAC
1951Sort Merge GeneratorBetty Holbertonnone (unique language)
1952A-0Grace HopperShort Code
1952Glennie AutocodeAlick Glennie after Alan TuringCPC Coding scheme
1952Editing GeneratorMilly KossSORT/MERGE
1952COMPOOLRAND/SDCnone (unique language)
1953SpeedcodingJohn W. Backusnone (unique language)
1953READ/PRINTDon Harroff, James Fishman, George Ryckmannone (unique language)
1954Laning and Zierler systemLaning, Zierler, Adams at MIT Project Whirlwindnone (unique language)
1954Mark I AutocodeTony BrookerGlennie Autocode
1954–55FORTRAN (concept)Team led by John W. Backus at IBMSpeedcoding
1954ARITH-MATICTeam led by Grace Hopper at UNIVACA-0
1954MATH-MATICTeam led by Charles KatzA-0
1954MATRIX MATHH G Kahrimaniannone (unique language)
1954IPL I (concept)Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, Herbert A. Simonnone (unique language)
1955FLOW-MATICTeam led by Grace Hopper at UNIVACA-0
1955BACAICM. Grems and R. Porter
1955Freiburger Code[4][5]University of FreiburgN/A
1955–56Sequentielle FormelübersetzungFritz Bauer and Karl SamelsonBoehm
1955–56ITTeam led by Alan PerlisLaning and Zierler
1958IPL II (implementation)Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, Herbert A. SimonIPL I
1956–58LISP (concept)John McCarthyIPL
1957GEORGECharles Leonard Hamblinnone (unique language)
1957FORTRAN I (implementation)John W. Backus at IBMFORTRAN
1957COMIT (concept)Victor Yngvenone (unique language)
1958FORTRAN IITeam led by John W. Backus at IBMFORTRAN I
1958ALGOL 58 (IAL)ACM/GAMMFORTRAN, IT, Sequentielle Formelübersetzung
1958IPL VAllen Newell, Cliff Shaw, Herbert A. SimonIPL II
1959APTDouglas T. Ross
1959FACTFletcher R. Jones, Roy Nutt, Robert L. Patricknone (unique language)
1959JOVIALJules Schwartz at SDCALGOL 58
1959LISP (implementation)John McCarthyIPL
1959MAD – Michigan Algorithm DecoderBruce Arden, Bernard Galler, and Robert M. GrahamALGOL 58
1959TRAC (concept)Calvin Mooers

Programming languages in the 1960s

YearNameChief developer, companyPredecessor(s)
1960ALGOL 60ALGOL 58
1960COBOL 61 (implementation)The CODASYL CommitteeFLOW-MATIC, COMTRAN
1961COMIT (implementation)Victor Yngvenone (unique language)
1961GPSSGeoffrey Gordon, IBMnone (unique language)
1962APL (concept)Kenneth E. Iversonnone (unique language)
1962Simula (concept)ALGOL 60
1962SNOBOLRalph Griswold, et al.FORTRAN II, COMIT
1963CPLBarron, Christopher Strachey, et al.ALGOL 60
1963SNOBOL3Griswold, et al.SNOBOL
1963ALGOL 68 (concept)Adriaan van Wijngaarden, et al.ALGOL 60
1963JOSS ICliff Shaw, RANDALGOL 58
1964MIMICH. E. Petersen, et al.MIDAS
1964COWSELRod Burstall, Robin PopplestoneCPL, LISP
1964BASICJohn George Kemeny and Thomas Eugene Kurtz at Dartmouth CollegeFORTRAN II, JOSS
1964Speakeasy-2Stanley Cohen at Argonne National LaboratorySpeakeasy
1964TRAC (implementation)Calvin Mooers
1964P′′Corrado Böhmnone (unique language)
1965MAD/I (concept)University of MichiganMAD, ALGOL 60, PL/I
1965Atlas AutocodeTony Brooker, Derrick Morris at Manchester UniversityAlgol 60, Autocode
1966JOSS IIChuck Baker, RANDJOSS I
1966ALGOL WNiklaus Wirth, C. A. R. HoareALGOL 60
1966ISWIM (Concept)Peter J. LandinLISP
1966APL (implementation)[6]Kenneth E. Iversonnone (unique language)
1967BCPLMartin RichardsCPL
1967MUMPSMassachusetts General HospitalFORTRAN, TELCOMP
1967Simula 67 (implementation)Ole-Johan Dahl, Bjørn Myhrhaug, Kristen Nygaard at Norsk RegnesentralALGOL 60
1967InterLispD.G. Bobrow and D.L. MurphyLisp
1967EXAPTHerwart Opitz, Wilhelm Simon, Günter Spur, and Gottfried Stute at RWTH Aachen University and TU BerlinAPT
1967SNOBOL4Ralph Griswold, et al.SNOBOL3
1967XPLWilliam M. McKeeman, et al. at University of California, Santa CruzPL/I
J. J. Horning, et al. at Stanford University
1967Space Programming Language (SPL)System Development CorporationJOVIAL
1968ALGOL 68 (UNESCO/IFIP standard)Adriaan van Wijngaarden, Barry J. Mailloux, John E. L. Peck and Cornelis H. A. Koster, et al.ALGOL 60
1968POP-1Rod Burstall, Robin PopplestoneCOWSEL
1968Forth (concept)Moore
1968LOGOWally Feurzeig, Seymour Papert, Cynthia SolomonLISP
1968REFAL (implementation)Valentin Turchinnone (unique language)
1968TTM (implementation)Steven Caine and E. Kent Gordon, California Institute of TechnologyGAP, GPM
1968PILOTJohn Amsden Starkweather, University of California, San FranciscoComputest
1969PL/I (implementation)IBMALGOL 60, COBOL, FORTRAN
1969BKen Thompson, with contributions from Dennis RitchieBCPL
1969Polymorphic Programming Language (PPL)Thomas A. Standish at Harvard University
1969SETLJack Schwartz at Courant Institute of Mathematical SciencesALGOL 60
1969TUTORPaul Tenczar & University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
1969Edinburgh IMPEdinburgh UniversityAlgol 60, Autocode, Atlas Autocode

Programming languages in the 1970s

YearNameChief developer, companyPredecessor(s)
1970Forth (implementation)Charles H. Moore
1970POP-2Robin PopplestonePOP-1
1970SAILDan Swinehart and Bob SproullALGOL-60
1970PascalNiklaus Wirth, Kathleen JensenALGOL 60, ALGOL W
1970BLISSWulf, Russell, Habermann at Carnegie Mellon UniversityALGOL
1971KRLDaniel G. Bobrow at Xerox PARC, Terry Winograd at Stanford UniversityKM, FRL (MIT)
1971SueRic Holt et al. at University of TorontoPascal, XPL
1971Compiler Description Language (CDL)Cornelis H.A. Koster at University of Nijmegen
1972Smalltalk-72Alan Kay, Adele Goldberg, Dan Ingalls, Xerox PARCSimula 67
1972PL/MGary Kildall at Digital ResearchPL/I, ALGOL, XPL
1972K&R CDennis RitchieB, BCPL, ALGOL 68
1972INTERCALDon Woods and James M. Lyonnone (unique language)
1972PrologAlain Colmerauer2-level W-Grammar
1972Structured Query language (SQL)IBMALPHA, Quel (Ingres)
1973COMALBørge Christensen, Benedict LøfstedtPascal, BASIC
1973MLRobin Milner
1973LISJean Ichbiah et al. at CII Honeywell BullPascal, Sue
1973Speakeasy-3Stanley Cohen, Steven Pieper at Argonne National LaboratorySpeakeasy-2
1974CLUBarbara LiskovALGOL 60, Lisp, Simula
1974MAINSAILStanford UniversitySAIL
1974GRASSThomas A. DeFantiBASIC
1974PROSE modeling languageCDC 6600 Cybernet ServicesSLANG, FORTRAN
1975ABCLeo Geurts and Lambert MeertensSETL
1975Irvine Dataflow (concept)Arvind?, University of California, Irvine
1975PROSE modeling language Time-Sharing VersionCDC 6400 Cybernet KRONOS ServicesSLANG, FORTRAN
1975SchemeGerald Jay Sussman, Guy L. Steele, Jr.LISP
1975Altair BASICBill Gates, Paul AllenBASIC
1975CS-4James S. Miller, Benjamin M. Brosgol et al. at IntermetricsALGOL 68, BLISS, ECL, HAL
1975ModulaNiklaus WirthPascal
1976PlusAllan Ballard, Paul Whaley at the University of British ColumbiaPascal, Sue
1976Smalltalk-76Xerox PARCSmalltalk-72
1976MesaXerox PARCALGOL
1976SAM76Claude A.R. KaganLISP, TRAC
1976RatforBrian KernighanC, FORTRAN
1976SJohn Chambers at Bell LabsAPL, PPL, Scheme
1976SASSAS Institute
1976Integer BASICSteve WozniakBASIC
1977FPJohn Backusnone (unique language)
1977Bourne Shell (sh)Stephen R. Bournenone (unique language)
1977Commodore BASICJack TramielBASIC
1977IDLDavid Stern of Research Systems IncFortran
1977Standard MUMPSMUMPS
1977Icon (concept)Ralph GriswoldSNOBOL
1977RedBenjamin M. Brosgol et al. at Intermetrics for US Dept of DefenseALGOL 68, CS-4
1977BlueJohn B. Goodenough[7][8] et al. at SofTech for US Dept of DefenseALGOL 68
1977YellowJay Spitzen et al. at SRI International for US Dept of DefenseALGOL 68
1977EuclidButler Lampson at Xerox Parc, Ric Holt and James Cordy at University of Toronto
1977Applesoft BASICMarc McDonald and Ric WeilandBASIC
1978RAPTPat Ambler and Robin PopplestoneAPT
1978C shellBill JoyC
1978HAL/Sdesigned by Intermetrics for NASAXPL
1978Applesoft II BASICMarc McDonald and Ric WeilandApplesoft BASIC
1975Irvine Dataflow (implementation)Arvind and Gostelow, University of California, Irvine
1978?MATLABCleve Moler at the University of New MexicoFortran
1978?SMALLNevil Brownlee at the University of AucklandAlgol60
1978VisiCalcDan Bricklin, Bob Frankston marketed by VisiCorpnone (unique language)
1979Modula-2Niklaus WirthModula, Mesa
1979REXXMike Cowlishaw at IBMPL/I, BASIC, EXEC 2
1979AWKAlfred Aho, Peter J. Weinberger, Brian KernighanC, SNOBOL
1979Icon (implementation)Ralph GriswoldSNOBOL
1979Vulcan dBase-IIWayne Ratliffnone (unique language)

Programming languages in the 1980s

YearNameChief developer, companyPredecessor(s)
1980Ada 80 (MIL-STD-1815)Jean Ichbiah at CII Honeywell BullGreen
1980C with classesBjarne Stroustrup[9]C, Simula 67
1980Applesoft IIIApple ComputerApplesoft II BASIC
1980Apple III Microsoft BASICMicrosoftMicrosoft BASIC
1980–81CBASICGordon EubanksBASIC, Compiler Systems, Digital Research
1981BBC BASICAcorn Computers, Sophie WilsonBASIC
1982?Speakeasy-IVStanley Cohen, et al. at Speakeasy Computing CorporationSpeakeasy-3
1982?DracoChris GrayPascal, C, ALGOL 68
1982TuringRic Holt and James Cordy, at University of TorontoEuclid
1983Turbo PascalHejlsberg at BorlandPascal
1983Ada 83 (ANSI/MIL-STD-1815A)Jean Ichbiah at AlsysAda 80, Green
1983Objective-CBrad CoxSmalltalk, C
1983C++Bjarne StroustrupC with Classes
1983True BASICJohn George Kemeny, Thomas Eugene Kurtz at Dartmouth CollegeBASIC
1983occamDavid MayEPL
1983KornShell (ksh)David Kornsh
1983ClascalApple Computer Inc.Pascal
1984Common LispGuy L. Steele, Jr. and many othersLISP
1984RPLHewlett-PackardForth, Lisp
1984Standard MLML
1984RedcodeAlexander Dewdney and D.G. Jones
1986ClarionBruce Barrington
1986EiffelBertrand MeyerSimula 67, Ada
1986GFA BASICFrank OstrowskiBASIC
1986LabVIEWNational Instruments
1986MirandaDavid Turner at University of Kent
1986Object PascalApple Computer Inc.Pascal
1986ErlangJoe Armstrong and others in EricssonProlog
1987Ada ISO 8652:1987ANSI/MIL-STD-1815A unchangedAda 83
1987Self (concept)Sun Microsystems Inc.Smalltalk
1987occam 2David May and INMOSoccam
1987HyperTalkApple Computer Inc.none (unique language)
1987PerlLarry WallC, sed, awk, sh
1987OberonNiklaus WirthModula-2
1987Mathematica (Wolfram Language)Wolfram Researchnone (unique language)
1987Turbo BasicRobert 'Bob' ZaleBASIC/Z
1987CleanSoftware Technology Research Group of Radboud University Nijmegennone (unique language)
1988TclJohn OusterhoutAwk, Lisp
1988STOS BASICFrançois Lionet and Constantin SotiropoulosBASIC
1988ActorCharles Duff, the Whitewater GroupForth, Smalltalk
1988Object REXXSimon C. NashREXX, Smalltalk
1988SPARKBernard A. CarréAda
1988A+Arthur WhitneyAPL
1988Hamilton C shellNicole HamiltonC shell
1988-1989C90C90 ISO/IEC 9899:1990
1989Turbo Pascal OOPAnders Hejlsberg at BorlandTurbo Pascal, Object Pascal
1989Modula-3Cardeli, et al. DEC and OlivettiModula-2
1989PowerBASICRobert 'Bob' ZaleTurbo Basic
1989VisSimPeter Darnell, Visual Solutions
1989LPCLars Pensjö
1989BashBrian FoxBourne shell, C shell, KornShell
1989MagikArthur Chance, of Smallworld Systems LtdSmalltalk

Programming languages in the 1990s

YearNameChief developer, companyPredecessor(s)
1990SatherSteve OmohundroEiffel
1990AMOS BASICFrançois Lionet and Constantin SotiropoulosSTOS BASIC
1990AMPLRobert Fourer, David Gay and Brian Kernighan at Bell Laboratories
1990Object OberonH Mössenböck, J Templ, R GriesemerOberon
1990JKenneth E. Iverson, Roger Hui at Iverson SoftwareAPL, FP
1990EuLispCommon Lisp, Scheme
1990Z Shell (zsh)Paul Falstad at Princeton Universityksh
1991GNU EDavid J. DeWitt, Michael J. CareyC++
1991Oberon-2Hanspeter Mössenböck, WirthObject Oberon
1991OzGert Smolka and his studentsProlog
1991QAlbert Gräf
1991Visual BasicAlan Cooper, sold to MicrosoftQuickBASIC
1992Borland PascalTurbo Pascal OOP
1992Dylanmany people at Apple Computer Inc.Common Lisp, Scheme
1992S-LangJohn E. DavisPostScript
1993?Self (implementation)Sun Microsystems Inc.Smalltalk
1993Amiga EWouter van OortmerssenDEX, C, Modula-2
1993BrainfuckUrban MüllerP'′
1993LiveCode TranscriptHyperTalk
1993AppleScriptApple Computer Inc.HyperTalk
1993KArthur WhitneyAPL, Lisp
1993LuaRoberto Ierusalimschy et al. at Tecgraf, PUC-RioScheme, SNOBOL, Modula, CLU, C++
1993RRobert Gentleman and Ross IhakaS
1993ZPLChamberlain et al. at University of WashingtonC
1993NewtonScriptWalter SmithSelf, Dylan
1993EuphoriaRobert CraigSNOBOL, AWK, ABC, Icon, Python
1994ClaireYves CaseauSmalltalk, SETL, OPS5, Lisp, ML, C, LORE, LAURE
1994ANSI Common LispCommon Lisp
1994PikeFredrik Hübinette et al. at Linköping UniversityLPC, C, µLPC
1994ANS ForthElizabeth Rather, et al.Forth
1995Ada 95S. Tucker Taft, et al. at Intermetrics, Inc.Ada 83
1995Borland DelphiAnders Hejlsberg at BorlandBorland Pascal
1995ColdFusion (CFML)Allaire
1995JavaJames Gosling at Sun MicrosystemsC, Simula 67, C++, Smalltalk, Ada 83, Objective-C, Mesa
1995LiveScriptBrendan Eich at NetscapeSelf, C, Scheme
1995MercuryZoltan Somogyi at University of MelbourneProlog, Hope, Haskell
1995PHPRasmus LerdorfPerl
1995RubyYukihiro MatsumotoSmalltalk, Perl
1995JavaScriptBrendan Eich at NetscapeLiveScript
1995RacketMatthew Flatt at Rice UniversityScheme, Lisp
1996CurlDavid Kranz, Steve Ward, Chris Terman at MITLisp, C++, Tcl/Tk, TeX, HTML
1996LassoBlue World Communications Inc.
1996Perl Data Language (PDL)Karl Glazebrook, Jarle Brinchmann, Tuomas Lukka, and Christian SoellerAPL, Perl
1996VBScriptMicrosoftVisual Basic
1996OCamlINRIACaml Light, Standard ML
1996NetRexxMike CowlishawREXX
1997Component PascalOberon microsystems, IncOberon-2
1997EMark S. MillerJoule, Original-E
1997PicoFree University of BrusselsScheme
1997SqueakAlan Kay, et al. at Apple Computer Inc.Smalltalk-80, Self
1997ECMAScriptECMA TC39-TG1JavaScript
1997F-ScriptPhilippe MouginSmalltalk, APL, Objective-C
1997ISLISPISO Standard ISLISPCommon Lisp
1997TeaJorge NunesJava, Scheme, Tcl
1997REBOLCarl Sassenrath, Rebol TechnologiesSelf, Forth, Lisp, Logo
1998LogtalkPaulo Moura (then at University of Coimbra)Prolog
1998ActionScriptGary GrossmanECMAScript
1998Standard C++ANSI/ISO Standard C++C++, Standard C, C
1998M2001Ronald E. Prather, Trinity University (Texas)none (unique language)
1998PureBasicFrederic Laboureur, Fantaisie Software
1998UnrealScriptTim Sweeney at Epic GamesC++, Java
1998XSLT (+ XPath)W3C, James ClarkDSSSL
1998Xojo (REALbasic at the time)Xojo, Inc., Andrew BarryVisual Basic
1999C99C99 ISO/IEC 9899:1999
1999GambasBenoît MinisiniVisual Basic, Java
1999Game Maker Language (GML)Mark OvermarsGame Maker
1999HarbourAntonio LinaresdBase, Clipper

Programming languages in the 2000

YearNameChief developer, companyPredecessor(s)
2000Join JavaG Stewart von ItzsteinJava
2000DarkBasicThe Game Creators
2000C#Anders Hejlsberg, Microsoft (ECMA)C, C++, Java, Delphi, Modula-2
2001JoyManfred von ThunFP, Forth
2001AspectJGregor Kiczales, Xerox PARCJava, Common Lisp
2001DWalter Bright, Digital MarsC, C++, C#, Java
2001ProcessingCasey Reas and Benjamin FryJava, C, C++[10]
2001Visual Basic .NETMicrosoftVisual Basic
2001GDScript (GDS)Juan Linietsky, Ariel Manzur (OKAM Studio)Godot
2001Shakespeare Programming LanguageJon Åslund and Karl Hasselström.
2002IoSteve DekorteSelf, NewtonScript, Lua
2002GosuGuidewire SoftwareGScript
2002ScratchMitchel Resnick, John Maloney, Natalie Rusk, Evelyn Eastmond, Tammy Stern, Amon Millner, Jay Silver, and Brian SilvermanLogo, Smalltalk, Squeak, E-Toys, HyperCard, AgentSheets, StarLogo, Tweak, BYOB
2003NemerleUniversity of WrocławC#, ML, MetaHaskell
2003FactorSlava PestovJoy, Forth, Lisp
2003ScalaMartin OderskySmalltalk, Java, Haskell, Standard ML, OCaml
2003C++03C++ ISO/IEC 14882:2003C++, Standard C, C
2003SquirrelAlberto DemichelisLua
2003BooRodrigo B. de OliveiraPython, C#
2004SubtextJonathan Edwardsnone (unique language)
2004Alma-0Krzysztof Apt, Centrum Wiskunde & Informaticanone (unique language)
2004FreeBASICAndre VictorQBasic
2004GroovyJames StrachanJava
2004Little bAneil Mallavarapu, Harvard Medical School, Department of Systems BiologyLisp
2005FantomBrian Frank, Andy FrankC#, Scala, Ruby, Erlang
2005F#Don Syme, Microsoft ResearchOCaml, C#, Haskell
2005HaxeNicolas CannasseActionScript, OCaml, Java
2005OxygeneRemObjects SoftwareObject Pascal, C#
2005PWCTMahmoud Samir Fayednone (unique language)
2005Seed7Thomas Mertesnone (unique language)
2006CobraChuckEsterbrookPython, C#, Eiffel, Objective-C
2006Windows PowerShellMicrosoftC#, ksh, Perl, CL, DCL, SQL
2006FortressGuy SteeleScala, ML, Haskell
2007Ada 2005Ada Rapporteur GroupAda 95
2007AgdaUlf NorellCoq, Epigram, Haskell
2007QB64Galleon, QB64TeamQBasic
2007ClojureRich HickeyLisp, ML, Haskell, Erlang
2007LOLCODEAdam Lindsaynone (unique language)
2007Swift (parallel scripting language)University of Chicago, Argonne National Laboratory
2008NimAndreas RumpfPython, Lisp, Object Pascal
2008GenieJamie McCrackenPython, Boo, D, Object Pascal
2008PureAlbert GräfQ
2009ChapelBrad Chamberlain, Cray Inc.HPF, ZPL
2009GoGoogleC, Oberon, Limbo, Smalltalk
2009CoffeeScriptJeremy AshkenasJavaScript, Ruby, Python, Haskell
2009IdrisEdwin BradyHaskell, Agda, Coq
2009ParasailS. Tucker Taft, AdaCoreModula, Ada, Pascal, ML
2009WhileyDavid J. PearceJava, C, Python
2009DafnyK. Rustan M. LeinoJava, Spec#

Programming languages from 2010 onwards

A list of the most popular programmes of the decade.

YearNameChief developer, companyPredecessor(s)
2010RustGraydon Hoare, MozillaAlef, C++, Camlp4, Erlang, Hermes, Limbo, Napier, Napier88, Newsqueak, NIL, Sather, Standard ML
2011C11C11 ISO/IEC 9899:2011
2011CeylonGavin King, Red HatJava
2011DartGoogleJava, JavaScript, CoffeeScript, Go
2011C++11C++ ISO/IEC 14882:2011C++, Standard C, C
2011KotlinJetBrainsJava, Scala, Groovy, C#, Gosu
2011RedNenad RakočevićRebol, Scala, Lua
2011OpaMLstateOCaml, Erlang, JavaScript
2012ElixirJosé ValimErlang, Ruby, Clojure
2012ElmEvan CzaplickiHaskell, Standard ML, OCaml, F#
2012TypeScriptAnders Hejlsberg, MicrosoftJavaScript, CoffeeScript
2012JuliaJeff Bezanson, Stefan Karpinski, Viral Shah, Alan Edelman, MITMATLAB, Lisp, C, Fortran, Mathematica[11] (strictly its Wolfram Language), Python, Perl, R, Ruby, Lua[12]
2012PVivek Gupta, Ethan Jackson, Shaz Qadeer, Sriram Rajamani, Microsoft
2012Ada 2012ARA and Ada Europe (ISO/IEC 8652:2012)Ada 2005, ISO/IEC 8652:1995/Amd 1:2007
2013P4P4 Language Consortium (P4.org)
2013PureScriptPhil FreemanHaskell
2013HopscotchHopscotch TechnologiesScratch
2013CuneiformJörgen BrandtSwift (parallel scripting language)
2014CrystalAry Borenszweig, Manas Technology SolutionsRuby, C, Rust, Go, C#, Python
2014SwiftApple Inc.Objective-C, Rust, Haskell, Ruby, Python, C#, CLU
2014C++14C++ ISO/IEC 14882:2014C++, Standard C, C
2015RakuLarry Wall, The Rakudo TeamPerl, Haskell, Python, Ruby
2015ZigAndrew KelleyC, C++, LLVM IR, Go, Rust
2016ReasonJordan WalkeJavaScript, OCaml[13]
2017C++17C++ ISO/IEC 14882:2017C++, Standard C, C
2017BallerinaWSO2, Open Source[14]Java, Javascript, Go, Rust, C#
2018C18C18 ISO/IEC 9899:2018
2018Fortran 2018ISO/IEC JTC1/SC22/WG5 N2150:2018Fortran 2008
2019BosqueMark Marron, MicrosoftJavaScript, TypeScript, ML